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Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Caesar De Bello Gallico 5 35 Course Notes


Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
April 19, 2014

[35]          1         Quo praecepto ab eis diligentissime observato, cum quaepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum fecerat, hostes velocissime refugiebant.          2         Interim eam partem nudari necesse erat et ab latere aperto tela recipi.          3         Rursus cum in eum locum unde erant egressi reverti coeperant, et ab eis qui cesserant et ab eis qui proximi steterant circumveniebantur;          4         sin autem locum tenere vellent, nec virtuti locus relinquebatur, neque ab tanta multitudine coniecta tela conferti vitare poterant.          5         Tamen tot incommodis conflictati, multis vulneribus acceptis resistebant et magna parte diei consumpta, cum a prima luce ad horam octavam pugnaretur, nihil quod ipsis esset indignum committebant.         6         Tum Tito Balventio, qui superiore anno primum pilum duxerat, viro forti et magnae auctoritatis, utrumque femur tragula traicitur; 7 Quintus Lucanius, eiusdem ordinis, fortissime pugnans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, interficitur;  8         Lucius Cotta legatus omnes cohortes ordinesque adhortans in adversum os funda vulneratur.
[35]             1            Quo praecepto ab eis diligentissime observato, His men precisely followed his tactics; “observato” is perfect passive participle of observo, observare, observavi, observatum, “to heed, regard, respect.”

cum quaepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum fecerat, hostes velocissime refugiebant when one of the cohorts ventured out of the circle to mount an attack, the enemy would immediately retreat;  “refugiebant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of refugio, refugere, refugi, “to run away, escape.”  “fecerat” is third person singular pluperfect indicative active of facio, facere, feci, factum, “to make, to do.”  “excesserat” is third person singular pluperfect indicative active of excedo, excedere, excessi, excessum, “to go out, go forth from.”

2            Interim eam partem nudari necesse erat et ab latere aperto tela recipi This maneuver necessarily left a gap in the line, exposing us to fire on the open flank; “recipi” is present passive infinitive of recipio, recipere, recepi, receptum, “to receive, to take.”  “nudari” is present passive infinitive of nudo, nudare, nudavi, nudatum, “to make naked, strip bare.”
3            Rursus cum in eum locum unde erant egressi reverti coeperant, et ab eis qui cesserant et ab eis qui proximi steterant circumveniebantur Then when they sought to return to position they were swamped both by those enemy who had retreated and those who had stood fast; “circumveniebantur” is third person plural imperfect passive indicative of circumvenio, circumvenire, circumveni, circumventum, “to surround, beset, overwhelm.” “steterant” is third person plural pluperfect indicative active of sto, stare, steti, statum, “to stand, remain.”  “cesserant” is third person plural pluperfect indicative active of cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum, “to withdraw, fall back.”  “coeperant” is third person plural pluperfect indicative active of the defective coepi, coepisse, coeptum, “to begin.” “reverti” is present infinitive of the deponent revertor, reverti, reversus sum, “ to return, turn back.”  “erant egressi” is third person plural pluperfect indicative active of the deponent egredior, egredi, egressus sum, “to march forth.” 

4            sin autem locum tenere vellent, nec virtuti locus relinquebatur, neque ab tanta multitudine coniecta tela conferti vitare poterant but if they tried to maintain a static formation they lacked a way to bring their force to bear against the enemy, and could not avoid the missile fire from the numerous enemy fighters; “poterant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of the irregular possum, posse, potui.  “vitare” is present infinitive active of vito, vitare, vitavi, vitatum, “to avoid, shun.” “vellent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of volo, velle, volui, “to wish, to want.” “tenere” is present infinitive of teneo, tenire, tenui, tentum, “to hold, maintain.” 

5            Tamen tot incommodis conflictati, multis vulneribus acceptis resistebant et magna parte diei consumpta, cum a prima luce ad horam octavam pugnaretur, nihil quod ipsis esset indignum committebant Under such unfavorable conditions the men nevertheless put up a fight, incurring no discredit while sustaining many casualties in a battle lasting from dawn till mid-afternoon; “committebant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of committo, committere, commisi, commissum, “to begin, commence, carry on.”  “esset” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of sum, esse, fui, futurus.  “pugnaretur” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive passive of pugno, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatum.  “consumpta” is perfect passive participle of consumo, consumere, consumpsi, consumptum, “consume, spend.”  “resistebant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of resisto, resistere, restiti, “withstand, oppose, resist.”  “conflictati” is perfect passive participle of conflicto, conflictare, conflictavi, conflictatum, “to assail, torment, buffet.”

6            Tum Tito Balventio, qui superiore anno primum pilum duxerat, viro forti et magnae auctoritatis, utrumque femur tragula traicitur Then Titus Balventius, who had been a high-ranking centurion over the previous year, was transfixed by a javelin through the thighs; “traicitur” is third person singular present indicative passive of traicio, traicere, traieci, traiectum, “to pierce, transfix.” “duxerat” is third person singular pluperfect indicative active of duco, ducere, duxi, ductum, “to lead.” 

7 Quintus Lucanius, eiusdem ordinis, fortissime pugnans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, interficitur and Quintus Lucanius, another leading soldier, went to the rescue of his beleaguered son and was killed fighting most courageously; “interficitur” is third person singular present indicative passive of interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectum, “to kill, destroy.”  “subvenit” is third person singular present indicative active of subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum, “to assist, come to the aid of.”  “pugnans” is present participle of pugno, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatum, “to fight, give battle.” 

8            Lucius Cotta legatus omnes cohortes ordinesque adhortans in adversum os funda vulneratur. The legate Cotta, while rallying all the ranks, was wounded by a slingshot taken full in the face; “vulneratur” is third person singular present indicative passive of vulnero, vulnerare, vulneravi, vulneratum, “to wound, injure.”  “adhortans” is present participle of adhortor, adhortari, adhortatus sum, “to encourage, exhort.”

Caesar De Bello Gallico 5 34 Course Notes


Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
April 19, 2014

Caesar DBG 5:34
Course Notes

[34] 1         At barbaris consilium non defuit. Nam duces eorum tota acie pronuntiare iusserunt, ne quis ab loco discederet: illorum esse praedam atque illis reservari quaecumque Romani reliquissent: proinde omnia in victoria posita existimarent.          2         Erant et virtute et studio pugnandi pares; nostri, tametsi ab duce et a fortuna deserebantur, tamen omnem spem salutis in virtute ponebant, et quotiens quaeque cohors procurrerat, ab ea parte magnus numerus hostium cadebat.          3         Qua re animadversa Ambiorix pronuntiari iubet, ut procul tela coniciant neu propius accedant et, quam in partem Romani impetum fecerint, cedant (levitate armorum et cotidiana exercitatione nihil eis noceri posse),                   4         rursus se ad signa recipientes insequantur.
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[34] At barbaris consilium non defuit But the barbarians were ready with their counter-move; “defuit” is third person plural perfect indicative active of desum, deesse, defui, defuturusNam duces eorum tota acie pronuntiare iusserunt, ne quis ab loco discederet for their commanders passed the word down to the front lines that no one was to leave his post; “discederet” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of discedo, discedere, discessi, discessum, “to leave, depart.”  “iusserunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum.  “pronuntiare” is present infinitive of pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuniatum, “to declare, announce.”

illorum esse praedam atque illis reservari quaecumque Romani reliquissent: The spoils of war were theirs, and whatever the Romans abandoned had been predetermined for them; “reliquissent” is third person plural pluperfect subjunctive active of relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, “to abandon, leave behind.”  “reservari” is present passive infinitive of reservo, reservare, reservavi, reservatum, “to reserve, retain, save.” “esse” is present infinitive of sum, esse, fui, futurus.   proinde omnia in victoria posita existimarent. This instilled in them the conviction that everything hinged on victory; “existimarent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatum, “to think, suppose, believe.”  “posita” is the perfect passive participle of pono, ponere, posui, positum, “to put, place.” 

2            Erant et virtute et studio pugnandi pares; they were a match for us both in courage and prowess in war; “pugnandi” : genitive singular of the gerund of pugno, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatum, “to fight, give battle.” 

nostri, tametsi ab duce et a fortuna deserebantur, tamen omnem spem salutis in virtute ponebant our men, though deserted by luck and by their own leader; knew their only hope lay in taking courage;  “ponebant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of pono, ponere, posui, positum.  “deserebantur” is third person plural imperfect indicative passive of desero, deserere, deserui, desertum, “to quit, desert., leave.” 

et quotiens quaeque cohors procurrerat, ab ea parte magnus numerus hostium cadebat and whenever a cohort charged, a large number of the enemy fell; “cadebat” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of cado, cadere, cecidi, casum, “to fall, die. “procurrerat” is third person singular pluperfect indicative active of procurro, procurrere, procurri, procursum, “to advance, charge.” 

3            Qua re animadversa Ambiorix pronuntiari iubet, ut procul tela coniciant neu propius accedant  When Ambiorix realized this he ordered his men to hurl their missiles from a safe distance and not to approach too close; “accedant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum, “to come toward, approach.”  “coniciant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectum, “to throw, hurl.”  “iubet” is third person singular present indicative active of iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum.  “pronuntiari” is present passive infinitive of pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum.  “animadversa” is perfect passive participle of animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversum, “to notice, attend to.” 

quam in partem Romani impetum fecerint, cedant and to yield ground where the Romans attack; “cedant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum.  “fecerint” is third person plural perfect subjunctive active of facio, facere, feci, factum.

(levitate armorum et cotidiana exercitatione nihil eis noceri posse) (The lightness of their armor and their constant training enabled them to stay out of harm’s way); “posse” is present infinitive of possum, posse, potui.  “noceri” is present passive infinitive of noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitum, “injure, do harm, hurt.” 

4            rursus se ad signa recipientes insequantur. But when the Romans retreated to their own standards, they were to give chase; “insequantur” is third person plural present subjunctive active of the deponent insequor, insequi, insecutus sum, “to pursue, follow.” 
“recipientes” is present active participle of recipio, recipere, recepi, receptum, “to regain, take back.”

Wednesday, April 9, 2014

Caesar DBG 5 32 Course Notes


Caesar DBG 5:32
Course Notes

[32]          1         At hostes, posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliisque de profectione eorum senserunt, collocatis insidiis bipertito in silvis opportuno atque occulto loco a milibus passuum circiter duobus Romanorum adventum exspectabant,          2         et cum se maior pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset, ex utraque parte eius vallis subito se ostenderunt novissimosque premere et primos prohibere ascensu atque iniquissimo nostris loco proelium committere coeperunt.
[32]             1            At hostes, posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliisque de profectione eorum senserunt But the enemy, once they saw from the commotion and sentry activity that the Romans were really on the move; “senserunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum, “to perceive with the senses.” 
collocatis insidiis bipertito in silvis opportuno atque occulto loco a milibus passuum circiter duobus Romanorum adventum exspectabant, they set up ambushes at two coverts in the woods and then began to await the arrival of the Roman force in a well-chosen secure location about 2 miles away; “exspectabant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of expecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatum, “to await, expect.”  “collocatis” is second person plural present indicative active of colloco, collocare, collocavi, collocatum, “to place, put, set in order.” “collocatis insidiis”:  ablative absolute. 
2            et cum se maior pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset and when the better part of the column had snaked down into a steep ravine; “demisisset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of demitto, demittere, demisi, demissum, “(military) to send, bring, or lead soldiers down into a lower place.” 
ex utraque parte eius vallis subito se ostenderunt novissimosque premere et primos prohibere ascensu atque iniquissimo nostris loco proelium committere coeperunt they suddenly showed themselves and launched a pincer attack from two sides of this valley, striking the rear and blocking the advance of the vanguard, placing our troops at a serious disadvantage; “coeperunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of the defective coepi, coepisse, coeptum, “to have begun.” (no present tense).  “committere” is present infinitive of committo, comittere, comisi, comissum, “to commence (a battle).”  “prohibere” is present infinitive of prohibeo, prohibere, prohibui, prohibitum, “to forbid, hold back.”  “premere” is present infinitive of premo, premere, pressi, pressum, “to press, pursue.”  See Steadman’s note.  “ostenderunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentum, “to expose to view, exhibit, show.” 

Caesar DBG 5:33.1-4 Course Notes


Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
April 10, 2014
Caesar DBG 5:33.1-4
Course Notes

[33]          1         Tum demum Titurius, qui nihil ante providisset, trepidare et concursare cohortesque disponere, haec tamen ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deficere viderentur; quod plerumque eis accidere consuevit, qui in ipso negotio consilium capere coguntur. 2         At Cotta, qui cogitasset haec posse in itinere accidere atque ob eam causam profectionis auctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi saluti deerat et in appellandis cohortandisque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia praestabat.          3         Cum propter longitudinem agminis minus facile omnia per se obire et, quid quoque loco faciendum esset, providere possent, iusserunt pronuntiare, ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem consisterent.          4         Quod consilium etsi in eiusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit:
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[33]             1            Tum demum Titurius, qui nihil ante providisset, trepidare et concursare cohortesque disponere Finally Sabinus, who hadn’t seen this coming at all, began anxiously running up and down the line to organize his cohorts’ defense; “disponere” is present infinitive of dispono, disponere, disposui, dispositum, “to dispose, distribute, arrange.” “concursare” is present infinitive of concurso, concursare, concursavi, concursatum, “trepidare” is present infinitive of trepido, trepidare, trepidavi, trepidatum, “to tremble, to waver.”  “providisset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of provideo,providere, providi, provisum, “to forsee.”

haec tamen ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deficere viderentur; but even this he did as if in a panic, and in short it seemed he had lost it; “viderentur” is third person plural imperfect indicative passive of video, videre, vidi visum.  “deficere” is present infinitive of deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum, “to fail, desert, abandon.”

quod plerumque eis accidere consuevit, qui in ipso negotio consilium capere coguntur.  Which is what typically happens to those who suddenly have to make decisions in a crisis; “coguntur” is third person plural present indicative passive of cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum, “to force, compel.” “capere” is present infinitive of capio, capere, cepi, captum, “to capture, seize; to take in, understand.”  “consuevit” is third person singular perfect indicative active of consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetum, “to accustom, to tend to.”  “accidere” is present infinitive of accido, accidere, accidi, “to happen to, befall.” 

2            At Cotta, qui cogitasset haec posse in itinere accidere atque ob eam causam profectionis auctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi saluti deerat et in appellandis cohortandisque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia praestabat. But Cotta, who had figured some sort of ambush might happen along the march route (and for this exact reason had opposed leaving camp) left nothing undone to safeguard his men and did his duty as a commander, calling the men by name and bucking up their courage, while also taking part in the fighting; “praestabat” is third person sinular imperfect indicative active of praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestatum, “to stand before, to excel.”  “cohortandis” is dative of the future passive participle (gerundive) of cohorto, cohortare, cohortavi, cohortatum, “to encourage, exhort.”  “appellandis” is dative of the future passive participle (gerundive) of appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatum, “to call by name.”  “deerat” is third person singular imperfect indicative active of desum, deesse, defui, defuturus, “to abandon, desert.” “fuisset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of sum, esse, fui, futurus.  “accidere” is present infinitive of accido, accidere, accidi, “to happen to, befall.”  “cogitasset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of cogito, cogitare, cogitavi, cogitatum, “to think, consider, ponder.” 

3            Cum propter longitudinem agminis minus facile omnia per se obire et, quid quoque loco faciendum esset, providere possent, iusserunt pronuntiare, ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem consisterent  Since the length of the column made it hard for the officers to get an overview and to know what orders were necessary where, they sent word down through the chain to abandon baggage and form up in a circle;  “consisterent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of consisto, consistere, constiti, constitum, “to stop, take a stand.”  “relinquerent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, “to abandon, leave behind.” “pronuntiare” is present indicative of pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum, “to proclaim, declare.”  “iusserunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum, “to command, order.”  “possent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of possum, posse, potui, “to be able.”  “providere” is present infinitive of provideo, providere, providi, provisum.  “faciendum esset”:  passive periphrastic +third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of sum.  “obire” is present infinitive of obeo, obire, obii, obitum, “to survey, look over.” 

4            Quod consilium etsi in eiusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit: While it’s tough to criticize this tactic under the circumstances, it did have some unintended consequences:  “accidit” is third person singular present indicative active of accido, accidere, accidi, “to happen, befall.”  “reprehendendum”:  passive periphrastic; see Steadman’s note.  

Monday, April 7, 2014

Latin III Schedule for Week of April 7, 2014

Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
March 30, 2014
Latin III Course Schedule
Week of April 7, 2014

Tuesday, April 8
Note:  Begin to review what we’ve read so far in DBG
Ritchie Hercules 29:    6th Labor:  “The Stymphalian Birds.”
Caesar, DBG 30-31:    Sabinus Wins the Argument and the Romans Prepare to Depart
Remember to always listen to the audio file as part of your preparation.  Come prepared. 


Wednesday, April 9
Introduction to the Aeneid by Virgil.  English Language Version Distributed

Caesar, DBG 32-33.4     Romans Ambushed; Sabinus Despondent:        

Thursday, April 3

Caesar. DBG                 Continued
Wheelock 29:                Imperfect Subjunctive; Result Clauses
Sight Reading:                          Random passage from earlier chapter.  Review what we’ve read so far. 
Essays returned


Sunday, April 6, 2014

Caesar DBG 5:31 Course Notes

Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
April 5, 2014
Caesar DBG 5:31
Course Notes

[31] 1       Consurgitur ex consilio; comprehendunt utrumque et orant, ne sua dissensione et pertinacia rem in summum periculum deducat:         2       facilem esse rem, seu maneant, seu proficiscantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere. Res disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur.         3       Tandem dat Cotta permotus manus: superat sententia Sabini. Pronuntiatur prima luce ituros. 4 Consumitur vigiliis reliqua pars noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid secum portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibernorum relinquere cogeretur.          5       Omnia excogitantur, quare nec sine periculo maneatur, et languore militum et vigiliis periculum augeatur.          6       Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur, ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicissimo Ambiorige consilium datum, longissimo agmine maximisque impedimentis.
[31]      1          Consurgitur ex consilio; comprehendunt utrumque et orant, ne sua dissensione et pertinacia rem in summum periculum deducat: The council broke up, and their friends seized both Cotta and Sabinus, begging them not to let their dissension and antagonism lead them all into greater danger; “deducat” is third person singular present subjunctive active of deduco, deducere, deduxi, deductum, “to lead, pull.”  “orant” is third person plural present indicative active of oro, orare, oravi, oratum
2          facilem esse rem, seu maneant, seu proficiscantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent There was not a problem with either staying or leaving so long as all saw and agreed as one; “probent” is third person plural present subjunctive active of probo, probare, probavi, probatum, “to approve, commend.” “sentiant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum “to perceive, to believe.”  “proficiscantur” is third person plural present subjunctive active of the deponent proficiscor, proficisci, profectum sum. “maneant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of maneo, manere, mansi, mansum, “to stay, remain.” “esse” is present infinitive of sum, esse, fui, futurus
contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere. But if the bickering continued, they saw no hope of survival; “perspicere” is present infinitive of perspicio, perscipere, perspexi, perspectum, “to perceive or discern.”   Res disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur. The dispute dragged on until midnight; “perducitur” is third person singular present indicative passive of perduco, perducere, perduxi, perductum, “to drag out, prolong.”
3          Tandem dat Cotta permotus manus: superat sententia Sabini. Pronuntiatur prima luce ituros. At length, Cotta was prevailed upon to give in, and Sabinus’ position won out.  The word was passed that they would leave at first light; “ituros” is future active participle of the irregular eo, ire, ii, itum, “to go, leave.”  “pronuntiatur” is third person singular present indicative passive of pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum, “to proclaim, declare, announce.” “superat” is third person singular present indicative active of supero, superare, superavi, superatum, “to surmount, overcome.” 
4          Consumitur vigiliis reliqua pars noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid secum portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibernorum relinquere cogeretur No one slept the rest of that night, as every soldier was combing through his baggage to figure out which kit to haul along and which to leave behind; “cogeretur” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive passive of cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum, “to collect, assemble.” “relinquere” is present infinitive of relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, “to abandon, leave behind.”  “posset” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of possum, posse, potui.  “portare” is present infinitive of porto, portare, portavi, portatum. “circumspiceret” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of circumspicio, circumspicere, circumspexi, circumspectum, “to examine, review.”  “consumitur” is third person singular present indicative passive of consumo, consumere, consumpsi, consumptum, “to consume, take up completely.”  
5          Omnia excogitantur, quare nec sine periculo maneatur, et languore militum et vigiliis periculum augeatur And they were all trying to convince each other of reasons why it was way too dangerous to stay, and that the strain of constant vigilance would heighten the danger, and so on; “augeaturis third person singular present subjunctive passive of augeo, augere, auxi, auctum, “to increase, augment.”  “maneatur” is third person singular present subjunctive passive of maneo, manere, mansi, mansum.  “excogitantur” is third person plural present indicative passive of excogito, excogitare, excogitavi, excogitatum, “to contrive, devise, invent.” 
6          Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur, ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicissimo Ambiorige consilium datum, At dawn they struck camp, having deluded themselves that the advice they followed came not from the enemy but from that most friendly fellow, Ambiorix;  “datum (esse) is perfect passive infinitive of do, dare, dedi, datum; see Steadman’s note. “persuasum” is perfect passive participle of persuadeo, persuadere, persuasi, persuasum, “to persuade, convince.”  “esset” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of sum, esse, fui, futurus.  “proficiscuntur” is third person plural present indicative active of the deponent proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum.  
longissimo agmine maximisque impedimentis. The departing column stretched a great distance and the baggage slowed things to a crawl; ablative absolutes with participle understood; see Steadman’s note.


Saturday, April 5, 2014

Caesar DBG 5:30 Course Notes

Caesar DBG 5:30
Course Notes

[301       Hac in utramque partem disputatione habita, cum a Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, "Vincite," inquit, "si ita vultis," Sabinus, et id clariore voce, ut magna pars militum exaudiret;                 2       "neque is sum," inquit, "qui gravissime ex vobis mortis periculo terrear: hi sapient; si gravius quid acciderit, abs te rationem reposcent,          3       qui, si per te liceat, perendino die cum proximis hibernis coniuncti communem cum reliquis belli casum sustineant, non reiecti et relegati longe ab ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant."
[30]      1          Hac in utramque partem disputatione habita The opposing sides each having stated their case; “habita” is perfect passive participle (in an ablative absolute construction) of habeo, habere, habui, habitum. cum a Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur Sabinus’ position was sharply rejected by Cotta and the senior officers; “resisteretur” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive passive of resisto, resistere, restiti, “to resist, oppose.”  “cum” introduces the causal (or temporal) clause. 

"Vincite," inquit, "si ita vultis," Sabinus, et id clariore voce, ut magna pars militum exaudiret “Have it your way then, if that’s what you want!” cried Sabinus, in a still louder voice in order that the greater part of the rank-and-file could hear every word; “exaudiret” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive (in a purpose clause controlled by “ut”) active of exaudio, exaudire, exaudivi, exauditum, “to hear clearly.”  “Vincite”:  imperative, “Take the victory,” “You win.” 

2          "neque is sum," inquit, "qui gravissime ex vobis mortis periculo terrear: Of the whole lot of you I’m not the one most terrified by the danger of death! Sabinus’ syntax is somewhat involuted, possibly conveying his agitation, but he appears to attempt the rhetorical trope of litotes.  “terrear” is first person singular present subjunctive passive of terreo, terrere, terrui, territum, “to frighten, terrify.” 

hi sapient; si gravius quid acciderit, abs te rationem reposcent these men will know who to blame, though:  if worse comes to worst, they’ll call you out demanding answers; “reposcent” is third person plural future indicative active of the defective verb reposco, reposcere, “to demand back.”  “acciderit” is third person singular perfect subjunctive active of accido, accidere, accidi, to happen, to occur, take place. Subjunctive controlled by “si.”  See Steadman’s note and his chart on page 59 of the text. “sapient” is third person plural future indicative active of sapio, sapere, sapivi, “to discern, to see through.”

3          qui, si per te liceat, perendino die cum proximis hibernis coniuncti communem cum reliquis belli casum sustineant these men, who if only you would allow, could within 48 hours find safety at the nearby camp and face the hazards of battle with their comrades;  “sustineant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentum, “to withstand, hold out, undergo, endure.” “liceat” is present subjunctiv eof the impersonal licet, licere, licuit, licitum, “it is allowed, it is permitted.” 


non reiecti et relegati longe ab ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant not stranded and left to perish by starvation or slaughter, far from any rescue force; “intereant” is third person singular present subjunctive active of the irregular intereo, interire, interii, interitum, “to die, perish.” “relegati” is perfect passive participle of relego, relegere, relegi, relectum, “dispatched, relegated, sent away.” “reiecti” is perfect passive participle of reicio, reicere,reieci, reiectum, “to cast off, throw back, reject.”