Notify me by email when there's a new post

Wednesday, April 9, 2014

Caesar DBG 5 32 Course Notes


Caesar DBG 5:32
Course Notes

[32]          1         At hostes, posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliisque de profectione eorum senserunt, collocatis insidiis bipertito in silvis opportuno atque occulto loco a milibus passuum circiter duobus Romanorum adventum exspectabant,          2         et cum se maior pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset, ex utraque parte eius vallis subito se ostenderunt novissimosque premere et primos prohibere ascensu atque iniquissimo nostris loco proelium committere coeperunt.
[32]             1            At hostes, posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliisque de profectione eorum senserunt But the enemy, once they saw from the commotion and sentry activity that the Romans were really on the move; “senserunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum, “to perceive with the senses.” 
collocatis insidiis bipertito in silvis opportuno atque occulto loco a milibus passuum circiter duobus Romanorum adventum exspectabant, they set up ambushes at two coverts in the woods and then began to await the arrival of the Roman force in a well-chosen secure location about 2 miles away; “exspectabant” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of expecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatum, “to await, expect.”  “collocatis” is second person plural present indicative active of colloco, collocare, collocavi, collocatum, “to place, put, set in order.” “collocatis insidiis”:  ablative absolute. 
2            et cum se maior pars agminis in magnam convallem demisisset and when the better part of the column had snaked down into a steep ravine; “demisisset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of demitto, demittere, demisi, demissum, “(military) to send, bring, or lead soldiers down into a lower place.” 
ex utraque parte eius vallis subito se ostenderunt novissimosque premere et primos prohibere ascensu atque iniquissimo nostris loco proelium committere coeperunt they suddenly showed themselves and launched a pincer attack from two sides of this valley, striking the rear and blocking the advance of the vanguard, placing our troops at a serious disadvantage; “coeperunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of the defective coepi, coepisse, coeptum, “to have begun.” (no present tense).  “committere” is present infinitive of committo, comittere, comisi, comissum, “to commence (a battle).”  “prohibere” is present infinitive of prohibeo, prohibere, prohibui, prohibitum, “to forbid, hold back.”  “premere” is present infinitive of premo, premere, pressi, pressum, “to press, pursue.”  See Steadman’s note.  “ostenderunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentum, “to expose to view, exhibit, show.” 

Caesar DBG 5:33.1-4 Course Notes


Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
April 10, 2014
Caesar DBG 5:33.1-4
Course Notes

[33]          1         Tum demum Titurius, qui nihil ante providisset, trepidare et concursare cohortesque disponere, haec tamen ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deficere viderentur; quod plerumque eis accidere consuevit, qui in ipso negotio consilium capere coguntur. 2         At Cotta, qui cogitasset haec posse in itinere accidere atque ob eam causam profectionis auctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi saluti deerat et in appellandis cohortandisque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia praestabat.          3         Cum propter longitudinem agminis minus facile omnia per se obire et, quid quoque loco faciendum esset, providere possent, iusserunt pronuntiare, ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem consisterent.          4         Quod consilium etsi in eiusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit:
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
[33]             1            Tum demum Titurius, qui nihil ante providisset, trepidare et concursare cohortesque disponere Finally Sabinus, who hadn’t seen this coming at all, began anxiously running up and down the line to organize his cohorts’ defense; “disponere” is present infinitive of dispono, disponere, disposui, dispositum, “to dispose, distribute, arrange.” “concursare” is present infinitive of concurso, concursare, concursavi, concursatum, “trepidare” is present infinitive of trepido, trepidare, trepidavi, trepidatum, “to tremble, to waver.”  “providisset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of provideo,providere, providi, provisum, “to forsee.”

haec tamen ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deficere viderentur; but even this he did as if in a panic, and in short it seemed he had lost it; “viderentur” is third person plural imperfect indicative passive of video, videre, vidi visum.  “deficere” is present infinitive of deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum, “to fail, desert, abandon.”

quod plerumque eis accidere consuevit, qui in ipso negotio consilium capere coguntur.  Which is what typically happens to those who suddenly have to make decisions in a crisis; “coguntur” is third person plural present indicative passive of cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum, “to force, compel.” “capere” is present infinitive of capio, capere, cepi, captum, “to capture, seize; to take in, understand.”  “consuevit” is third person singular perfect indicative active of consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetum, “to accustom, to tend to.”  “accidere” is present infinitive of accido, accidere, accidi, “to happen to, befall.” 

2            At Cotta, qui cogitasset haec posse in itinere accidere atque ob eam causam profectionis auctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi saluti deerat et in appellandis cohortandisque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia praestabat. But Cotta, who had figured some sort of ambush might happen along the march route (and for this exact reason had opposed leaving camp) left nothing undone to safeguard his men and did his duty as a commander, calling the men by name and bucking up their courage, while also taking part in the fighting; “praestabat” is third person sinular imperfect indicative active of praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestatum, “to stand before, to excel.”  “cohortandis” is dative of the future passive participle (gerundive) of cohorto, cohortare, cohortavi, cohortatum, “to encourage, exhort.”  “appellandis” is dative of the future passive participle (gerundive) of appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatum, “to call by name.”  “deerat” is third person singular imperfect indicative active of desum, deesse, defui, defuturus, “to abandon, desert.” “fuisset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of sum, esse, fui, futurus.  “accidere” is present infinitive of accido, accidere, accidi, “to happen to, befall.”  “cogitasset” is third person singular pluperfect subjunctive active of cogito, cogitare, cogitavi, cogitatum, “to think, consider, ponder.” 

3            Cum propter longitudinem agminis minus facile omnia per se obire et, quid quoque loco faciendum esset, providere possent, iusserunt pronuntiare, ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem consisterent  Since the length of the column made it hard for the officers to get an overview and to know what orders were necessary where, they sent word down through the chain to abandon baggage and form up in a circle;  “consisterent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of consisto, consistere, constiti, constitum, “to stop, take a stand.”  “relinquerent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, “to abandon, leave behind.” “pronuntiare” is present indicative of pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum, “to proclaim, declare.”  “iusserunt” is third person plural perfect indicative active of iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum, “to command, order.”  “possent” is third person plural imperfect subjunctive active of possum, posse, potui, “to be able.”  “providere” is present infinitive of provideo, providere, providi, provisum.  “faciendum esset”:  passive periphrastic +third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of sum.  “obire” is present infinitive of obeo, obire, obii, obitum, “to survey, look over.” 

4            Quod consilium etsi in eiusmodi casu reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode accidit: While it’s tough to criticize this tactic under the circumstances, it did have some unintended consequences:  “accidit” is third person singular present indicative active of accido, accidere, accidi, “to happen, befall.”  “reprehendendum”:  passive periphrastic; see Steadman’s note.  

Monday, April 7, 2014

Latin III Schedule for Week of April 7, 2014

Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
March 30, 2014
Latin III Course Schedule
Week of April 7, 2014

Tuesday, April 8
Note:  Begin to review what we’ve read so far in DBG
Ritchie Hercules 29:    6th Labor:  “The Stymphalian Birds.”
Caesar, DBG 30-31:    Sabinus Wins the Argument and the Romans Prepare to Depart
Remember to always listen to the audio file as part of your preparation.  Come prepared. 


Wednesday, April 9
Introduction to the Aeneid by Virgil.  English Language Version Distributed

Caesar, DBG 32-33.4     Romans Ambushed; Sabinus Despondent:        

Thursday, April 3

Caesar. DBG                 Continued
Wheelock 29:                Imperfect Subjunctive; Result Clauses
Sight Reading:                          Random passage from earlier chapter.  Review what we’ve read so far. 
Essays returned


Sunday, April 6, 2014

Caesar DBG 5:31 Course Notes

Latin III:  Caesar, De Bello Gallico
Instructor:  James Ransom
April 5, 2014
Caesar DBG 5:31
Course Notes

[31] 1       Consurgitur ex consilio; comprehendunt utrumque et orant, ne sua dissensione et pertinacia rem in summum periculum deducat:         2       facilem esse rem, seu maneant, seu proficiscantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent; contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere. Res disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur.         3       Tandem dat Cotta permotus manus: superat sententia Sabini. Pronuntiatur prima luce ituros. 4 Consumitur vigiliis reliqua pars noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid secum portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibernorum relinquere cogeretur.          5       Omnia excogitantur, quare nec sine periculo maneatur, et languore militum et vigiliis periculum augeatur.          6       Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur, ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicissimo Ambiorige consilium datum, longissimo agmine maximisque impedimentis.
[31]      1          Consurgitur ex consilio; comprehendunt utrumque et orant, ne sua dissensione et pertinacia rem in summum periculum deducat: The council broke up, and their friends seized both Cotta and Sabinus, begging them not to let their dissension and antagonism lead them all into greater danger; “deducat” is third person singular present subjunctive active of deduco, deducere, deduxi, deductum, “to lead, pull.”  “orant” is third person plural present indicative active of oro, orare, oravi, oratum
2          facilem esse rem, seu maneant, seu proficiscantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent There was not a problem with either staying or leaving so long as all saw and agreed as one; “probent” is third person plural present subjunctive active of probo, probare, probavi, probatum, “to approve, commend.” “sentiant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum “to perceive, to believe.”  “proficiscantur” is third person plural present subjunctive active of the deponent proficiscor, proficisci, profectum sum. “maneant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of maneo, manere, mansi, mansum, “to stay, remain.” “esse” is present infinitive of sum, esse, fui, futurus
contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere. But if the bickering continued, they saw no hope of survival; “perspicere” is present infinitive of perspicio, perscipere, perspexi, perspectum, “to perceive or discern.”   Res disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur. The dispute dragged on until midnight; “perducitur” is third person singular present indicative passive of perduco, perducere, perduxi, perductum, “to drag out, prolong.”
3          Tandem dat Cotta permotus manus: superat sententia Sabini. Pronuntiatur prima luce ituros. At length, Cotta was prevailed upon to give in, and Sabinus’ position won out.  The word was passed that they would leave at first light; “ituros” is future active participle of the irregular eo, ire, ii, itum, “to go, leave.”  “pronuntiatur” is third person singular present indicative passive of pronuntio, pronuntiare, pronuntiavi, pronuntiatum, “to proclaim, declare, announce.” “superat” is third person singular present indicative active of supero, superare, superavi, superatum, “to surmount, overcome.” 
4          Consumitur vigiliis reliqua pars noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid secum portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibernorum relinquere cogeretur No one slept the rest of that night, as every soldier was combing through his baggage to figure out which kit to haul along and which to leave behind; “cogeretur” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive passive of cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum, “to collect, assemble.” “relinquere” is present infinitive of relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum, “to abandon, leave behind.”  “posset” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of possum, posse, potui.  “portare” is present infinitive of porto, portare, portavi, portatum. “circumspiceret” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of circumspicio, circumspicere, circumspexi, circumspectum, “to examine, review.”  “consumitur” is third person singular present indicative passive of consumo, consumere, consumpsi, consumptum, “to consume, take up completely.”  
5          Omnia excogitantur, quare nec sine periculo maneatur, et languore militum et vigiliis periculum augeatur And they were all trying to convince each other of reasons why it was way too dangerous to stay, and that the strain of constant vigilance would heighten the danger, and so on; “augeaturis third person singular present subjunctive passive of augeo, augere, auxi, auctum, “to increase, augment.”  “maneatur” is third person singular present subjunctive passive of maneo, manere, mansi, mansum.  “excogitantur” is third person plural present indicative passive of excogito, excogitare, excogitavi, excogitatum, “to contrive, devise, invent.” 
6          Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur, ut quibus esset persuasum non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicissimo Ambiorige consilium datum, At dawn they struck camp, having deluded themselves that the advice they followed came not from the enemy but from that most friendly fellow, Ambiorix;  “datum (esse) is perfect passive infinitive of do, dare, dedi, datum; see Steadman’s note. “persuasum” is perfect passive participle of persuadeo, persuadere, persuasi, persuasum, “to persuade, convince.”  “esset” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive active of sum, esse, fui, futurus.  “proficiscuntur” is third person plural present indicative active of the deponent proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum.  
longissimo agmine maximisque impedimentis. The departing column stretched a great distance and the baggage slowed things to a crawl; ablative absolutes with participle understood; see Steadman’s note.


Saturday, April 5, 2014

Caesar DBG 5:30 Course Notes

Caesar DBG 5:30
Course Notes

[301       Hac in utramque partem disputatione habita, cum a Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, "Vincite," inquit, "si ita vultis," Sabinus, et id clariore voce, ut magna pars militum exaudiret;                 2       "neque is sum," inquit, "qui gravissime ex vobis mortis periculo terrear: hi sapient; si gravius quid acciderit, abs te rationem reposcent,          3       qui, si per te liceat, perendino die cum proximis hibernis coniuncti communem cum reliquis belli casum sustineant, non reiecti et relegati longe ab ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant."
[30]      1          Hac in utramque partem disputatione habita The opposing sides each having stated their case; “habita” is perfect passive participle (in an ablative absolute construction) of habeo, habere, habui, habitum. cum a Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur Sabinus’ position was sharply rejected by Cotta and the senior officers; “resisteretur” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive passive of resisto, resistere, restiti, “to resist, oppose.”  “cum” introduces the causal (or temporal) clause. 

"Vincite," inquit, "si ita vultis," Sabinus, et id clariore voce, ut magna pars militum exaudiret “Have it your way then, if that’s what you want!” cried Sabinus, in a still louder voice in order that the greater part of the rank-and-file could hear every word; “exaudiret” is third person singular imperfect subjunctive (in a purpose clause controlled by “ut”) active of exaudio, exaudire, exaudivi, exauditum, “to hear clearly.”  “Vincite”:  imperative, “Take the victory,” “You win.” 

2          "neque is sum," inquit, "qui gravissime ex vobis mortis periculo terrear: Of the whole lot of you I’m not the one most terrified by the danger of death! Sabinus’ syntax is somewhat involuted, possibly conveying his agitation, but he appears to attempt the rhetorical trope of litotes.  “terrear” is first person singular present subjunctive passive of terreo, terrere, terrui, territum, “to frighten, terrify.” 

hi sapient; si gravius quid acciderit, abs te rationem reposcent these men will know who to blame, though:  if worse comes to worst, they’ll call you out demanding answers; “reposcent” is third person plural future indicative active of the defective verb reposco, reposcere, “to demand back.”  “acciderit” is third person singular perfect subjunctive active of accido, accidere, accidi, to happen, to occur, take place. Subjunctive controlled by “si.”  See Steadman’s note and his chart on page 59 of the text. “sapient” is third person plural future indicative active of sapio, sapere, sapivi, “to discern, to see through.”

3          qui, si per te liceat, perendino die cum proximis hibernis coniuncti communem cum reliquis belli casum sustineant these men, who if only you would allow, could within 48 hours find safety at the nearby camp and face the hazards of battle with their comrades;  “sustineant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentum, “to withstand, hold out, undergo, endure.” “liceat” is present subjunctiv eof the impersonal licet, licere, licuit, licitum, “it is allowed, it is permitted.” 


non reiecti et relegati longe ab ceteris aut ferro aut fame intereant not stranded and left to perish by starvation or slaughter, far from any rescue force; “intereant” is third person singular present subjunctive active of the irregular intereo, interire, interii, interitum, “to die, perish.” “relegati” is perfect passive participle of relego, relegere, relegi, relectum, “dispatched, relegated, sent away.” “reiecti” is perfect passive participle of reicio, reicere,reieci, reiectum, “to cast off, throw back, reject.”  

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

BSV Reading 4 Appendix: Commentary by St. Augustine

BSV Reading 4:  “And You Shall Be As Gods!”
Genesis 3:4-5

Commentary by St. Augustine

The way in which the serpent succeeded calls for careful consideration, as it directly concerns our salvation. It was through pride that the sin was put across--I mean, that’s the catch in the words, “You will be like gods.”  What else is to be understood but a suggestion that they should refuse to be under God any longer, but should be their own masters without the Lord, that they should not keep a rule apparently laid down by him out of a jealous refusal to let them be in control of their own lives, no longer needing inner enlightenment from Him, but using their own wits, their own 'eyes,' to tell the difference between good and evil?”
--“On Genesis:  Against the Manichees” II.22






BSV Reading 4: "And You Shall Be As Gods!" Genesis 3:4-5

BSV Reading 4:  “And You Shall Be As Gods!”
Genesis 3:4-5
Answering the serpent’s question (Genesis 3:1,BSV Reading 3), Eve explains
 there is one tree in the middle of the garden,
 the fruit of which God has forbidden “lest we die.” Genesis 3:2-3.
 Satan has his rebuttal ready:
4  Dixit autem serpens ad mulierem: “Nequaquam morte moriemini.
5  Scit enim Deus quod in quocumque die comederitis, ex eo aperientur oculi vestri: et eritis sicut dii, scientes bonum et malum.”

4  Dixit autem serpens ad mulierem  And the serpent replied to the woman; “mulierem” is accusative singular of the third declension noun mulier, mulieris, f., “woman.”  “serpens” is nominative singular of the third declension noun serpens, serpentis, f.  “dixit” is third person singular perfect indicative active of dico, dicere, dixi, dictum, “to say.” 
Nequaquam morte moriemini No way will you two ‘die the death’; “moriemini” is second person plural future indicative active of the deponent morior, mori, mortuus sum, “to die.”  “morte” is ablative singular of the third declension noun mors, mortis, f.;  ablative of cause (literally, “die by death.”) (Note that the serpent quotes the idiom “morte morieris,” Genesis 2:17, BSV Reading 2) found in the initial warning to Adam, which Eve was not there to hear and which she does not repeat to the serpent.)  “Nequaquam” is an indeclinable adverb meaning “by no means, not at all.” 

5  Scit enim Deus quod in quocumque die comederitis In fact, God knows that on whatever day you do eat of that tree…; “comederitis” is second person plural future perfect indicative active of comedo, comedere, comesi, comesum, “to eat, consume, devour.”  “die” is ablative singular of the fifth declension noun dies, diei, m./f.; ablative of time when.  “quocumque” is an indeclinable adverb meaning “whichsoever, wheresoever, whatever.”  “scit” is third person singular present indicative active of scio, scire, scivi, scitum, “to know, understand, have knowledge.”

ex eo aperientur oculi vestri: from that moment your eyes will be opened; “aperientur” is third person plural future indicative passive of aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum, “to open, uncover.”  “oculi” is nominative plural of the second declension noun oculus, oculi, m., “eye.”  “vestri” is nominative plural of the first/second declension pronoun vester, vestra, vestrum, “your, yours.” 

et eritis sicut dii, scientes bonum et malum.” And you will be like gods, knowing both good and evil; “scientes” is present active participle of scio.  “eritis” is second person plural future indicative active of sum, esse, fui, futurus.  “dii” is nominative plural of the second declension noun deus, dei, m.  The adverb “sicut”=”as, just as, like.”

Running Vocabulary

4 mulier, mulieris, f., “woman.”
serpens, serpentis, f., “serpent.”
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum, “to say.”
morior, mori, mortuus sum, “to die.”  
nequaquam, adverb, “not at all, in no way.”
5 comedo, comedere, comesi, comesum, “to eat, consume, devour.”
dies, diei, m./f., “day.”
quocumque, adverb, “whichsoever, wheresoever.”
scio, scire, scivi, scitum, “to know, understand, have knowledge.”
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum, “to open, uncover.”
oculus, oculi, m., “eye.”
vester, vestra, vestrum, “your, yours.”   
deus, dei, m., “god.”
sicut, adverb, “as, just as, like.”