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Sunday, July 20, 2014

Aeneid 1:505-19 Course Notes: Dido Disposes Affairs of State; the Arrival of Aeneas' Trojan Comrades


Latin IV:  Vergil, Aeneid
Instructor:  James Ransom
July 10, 2014
Aeneid 1:505-519
Course Notes

Aeneas and Achates, still covert, watch while Queen Dido  dispenses laws and justice to her people; then they joyously observe the sudden arrival in court of a crowd of their Trojan comrades, delegates from the ships of the scattered fleet.  

Tum foribus dīvae, mediā testūdine templī,               505
saepta arm
īs, soliōque altē subnīxa resēdit.
Iura dabat l
ēgēsque virīs, operumque labōrem
partibus aequ
ābat iustīs, aut sorte trahēbat:
cum subit
ō Aenēās concursū accēdere magnō
Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum,               510
Teucr
ōrumque aliōs, āter quōs aequore turbō
dispulerat penitusque ali
ās āvexerat ōrās.
Obstipuit simul ipse simul perculsus Ach
ātēs
laetiti
āque metūque; avidī coniungere dextrās
ārdēbant; sed rēs animōs incognita turbat.                     515
Dissimulant, et nūbe cavā speculantur amictī,
quae fortuna vir
īs, classem quō lītore linquant,
quid veniant; c
ūnctīs nam lēctī nāvibus ībant,
ōrantēs veniam, et templum clāmōre petēbant.

Verbs in this Passage in Order of Appearance

Line
Verb principal parts
Definition
506
saepio, saepire, saepsi, saeptum
“to hedge in, enclose, surround.”
506
subnitor, subniti, subnixus sum
“to rest upon.” 
506
resido, residere, resedi resessum
“to sit down.”
507
do, dare, dedi, datum
“to give.”
508
aequo, aequare, aequavi, aequatum
“to make equal.”
508
traho, trahere, traxi, tractum
“to drag, to draw.” 
509
accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum
“go to, approach.”
510
video, videre, vidi, visum
“to see.”
512
dispello, dispellere, dispuli, dispulsum
“to drive apart, separate.”
512
aveho, avehere, avexi, avectum
“to carry off, carry away.” 
513
Obstipesco, obstipere, obstipui
 “to be dumbfounded, amazed.”
513
percutio, percutere, percussi, percussum
“to strike.”
514
coniungo, coniungere, coniunxi, coniunctum
“to join together.”  
515
ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum
“to burn (with eagerness).” 
515
turbo, turbare, turbavi, turbatum
 “to confuse, confound, disturb.” 
516
dissimulo, dissimulare, dissimulavi, dissimulatum
 “to hide, conceal; to feign.”
516
amicio, amicere, amicui, amictum
“to wrap around, clothe.”

517
linquo, linquere, liqui
“to leave.”
518
venio, venire, veni, ventum
“to come.”
518
lego, legere, legi, lectum
 “to choose.”
518
eo, ire, ii, itum
“to go.” 
519
oro, orare, oravi, oratum
“to pray.”
519
peto, petere, petivi, petitum
“to ask, petition.” 


Tum foribus divae, media testudine templi,               505
saepta armis, solioque alte subnixa resedit.

505            “Tum”=temporal adverb; “at that time, then.”  “foribus” is ablative plural of foris, foris, f. (3rd), “door.”  The possessive genitive “divae,” modifying “foribus,” is genitive singular of diva, divae, f. (1st), “”goddess.” The adjective “media,” qualifying “testudine,” is ablative singular feminine of medius, media, medium, “middle, in the middle.”  “testudine” is ablative singular of testudo, testudinis, f. (3rd), “tortoise, tortoise shell”; metaphorically from the shape of the shell, as here, “vaulted roof, arch, dome.” The possessive genitive “templi,” limiting “testudine,” is genitive singular of templum, templi, n. (2nd), “temple.” 

506            The participle “saepta,” agreeing with its nominative singular feminine subject “Dido” understood, is perfect passive participle of saepio, saepire, saepsi, saeptum, “to hedge in, enclose, surround.”  The instrumental ablative “armis,” construed with “saepta,” is ablative plural of arma, armorum, n., “arms.”  “solio” is dative singular of solium, solii, n. (2nd), “throne.”  The adverb “alte”= “on high.”  The participle “subnixa,” joined by “-que” to  and agreeing with “saepta,” is perfect passive participle of the intransitive deponent subnitor, subniti, subnixus sum, “to rest upon.”  “resedit,” agreeing with its subject Dido understood, is third person singular perfect indicative active of the intransitive resido, residere, resedi resessum, “to sit down.”              

Iura dabat legesque viris, operumque laborem
partibus aequabat iustis, aut sorte trahebat:

507                  “Iura,” direct object of “dabat,” is accusative plural of ius, iuris, n. (3rd), “law, ordinance.”  “dabat,” agreeing with its subject “Dido” understood, is third person singular imperfect indicative active of do, dare, dedi, datum.  “leges,” linked by “-que” to “iura,” is accusative plural of lex, legis, f. (3rd), “law.”  The indirect object “viris” is dative plural of vir, viri, m. (2nd).  “operum,” possessive genitive limiting “laborem,” is genitive plural of opus, operis, n. (3rd), “work.”  “-que” links this clause to the preceding clause.  “laborem” is accusative singular of labor, laboris, m. (3rd), “toil, work.” 

508                  “partibus” is ablative plural of pars, partis, f. (3rd), “part.”  “aequabat” is third person singular imperfect indicative active of aequo, aequare, aequavi, aequatum, “to make equal.”  The adjective “iustis,” agreeing with “partibus,” is ablative plural feminine of iustus, iusta, iustum, “just.”  “aut”= “or.”  “sorte” is ablative singular of sors, sortis, f. (3rd), “lot, chance, fate.” Instrumental ablative.  “trahebat” is third person singular imperfect indicative active of traho, trahere, traxi, tractum, “to drag, to draw.” 

cum subito Aeneas concursu accedere magno
Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum,               
510
Teucrorumque alios, ater quos aequore turbo
dispulerat penitusque alias avexerat oras.

509                  “cum”:  temporal, “when.”  The temporal adverb “subito,” modifying “videt accedere,” = “suddenly.”  “concursu” is ablative singular of concursus, concursus, m. (4th), “meeting, assembly.” “accedere” is present infinitive of accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum, “go to, approach.”  The adjective “magno,” modifying “concursu,” is ablative singular masculine of magnus, magna, magnum, “great, large.” 

510                  The names of the Trojans Antheus, Sergestus, and Cloanthus, all linked with “-que,” are all accusative singular.  “videt,” agreeing with its subject “Aeneas” in the previous line, is third person singular present indicative active of video, videre, vidi, visum

511                  “Teucrorum,” a partitive genitive modifying “alios,” is genitive plural of Teucri, Teucrorum, m.  The adjective “alios,” here used substantively, is accusative plural masculine of alius, alia, aliud.  The adjective “ater,” modifying “turbo,” is nominative singular masculine of ater, atra, atrum, “black, gloomy.”  The relative pronoun “quos,” agreeing with its antecedents “Anthea” et al., is accusative plural masculine of qui, quae, quod; direct object of “dispulerat” in the following line.  The locative ablative “aequore” is ablative singular of aequor, aequoris, n. (3rd), “level surface, sea.”  “turbo,” the subject of “dispulerat” in the following line, is nominative singular of turbo, turbinis, m. (3rd), “storm, whirlwind.” 

512                  “dispulerat,” agreeing with its subject “turbo” in the previous line, is third person singular pluperfect indicative active of dispello, dispellere, dispuli, dispulsum, “to drive apart, separate”; the direct object is “quos” in the previous line; the relative pronoun in turn refers to its antecedents, “Anthea” et al.  The adverb “penitus”= “far, far away, far-flung; from within, deeply”;  modifies “avexerat.”  “-que” links “dispulerat” and “avexerat.”   The adjective “alias,” modifying “oras,” is accusative plural feminine of alius, alia, aliud.  “avexerat,” agreeing with its subject “turbo,” is third person singular pluperfect indicative active of aveho, avehere, avexi, avectum, “to carry off, carry away.”  “oras” is accusative plural of ora, orae, f. (1st), “shore, coast, region, land.” 

Obstipuit simul ipse simul percussus Achates
laetitiaque metuque; avidi coniungere dextras
ardebant; sed res animos incognita turbat.                           515

513            The intransitive “obstipuit,” agreeing with its subject “ipse,” is third person singular perfect indicative active of obstipesco, obstipere, obstipui,  “to be dumbfounded, stunned, shocked, amazed.”  The temporal adverb “simul”= “at the same time, simultaneously.”  The intensive pronoun “ipse,” intensifying “Aeneas” at 509 and subject of “obstipuit,” is nominative singular masculine of ipse, ipsa, ipsum, “himself, herself, itself.”  “simul…simul”= “both…and [simultaneously].”  The participle “percussus,” agreeing with “Achates,” is perfect passive participle of percutio, percutere, percussi, percussum, “to strike.”  “Achates” is nominative singular masculine of Achates, Achatae, m., “loyal companion of Aeneas.” 

514            “laetitia” is ablative singular of laetitia, laetitiae, f. (1st), “joy, joyfulness.” 
“-que…-que” links “laetitia” and “metu.”  “metu” is ablative singular of metus, metus, m. (4th), “fear.”  The ablatives are instrumental.  The adjective “avidi,” agreeing with “illi” (Aeneas and Achates) understood, is nominative plural masculine of  avidus, avida, avidum, “eager, longing.”  “coniungere” is present infinitive active of coniungo, coniungere, coniunxi, coniunctum, “to join together.”  “dextras,” direct object of “coniungere,” is accusative plural of dextra, dextrae, f. (1st), “right hand.” 

515            “ardebant,” agreeing with “illi” understood, is third person plural imperfect indicative active of intransitive ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum, “to burn (with eagerness).”  “sed”= “but,” qualifying or contradicting the sentiment of the earlier phrase. “res,” subject of “turbat,” is nominative singular of res, rei, f. (5th). “animos,” direct object of “turbat,” is accusative plural of animus, animi, m. (2nd).  The adjective “incognita,” agreeing with “res,” is nominative singular feminine of incognitus, incognita, incognitum,  “unknown.” “turbat,” agreeing with its subject “res,” is third person singular present indicative active of turbo, turbare, turbavi, turbatum, “to confuse, confound, disturb.” 

Dissimulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti,                        516
quae fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquant,
quid veniant; cunctis nam lecti navibus ibant,
orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebant.

516            “dissimulant,” agreeing with “illi” understood,” is third person plural present indicative active of dissimulo, dissimulare, dissimulavi, dissimulatum, “to hide, conceal; to feign.”  The conjunction “et” joins “dissimulant” to “speculantur.”  “nube” is ablative singular of nubes, nubis, f. (3rd), “cloud.” The adjective “cava,” qualifying “”nube,” is ablative singular feminine of cavus, cava, cavum, “hollow.”  The intransitive deponent “speculantur,” agreeing with “illi” understood and coordinate with “dissimulant,” is third person plural present indicative of speculor, speculari, speculatus sum, “to look out; to spy, watch, observe.”  The participle “amicti,” agreeing with its subject “illi” understood, is perfect passive participle of amicio, amicere, amicui, amictum, “to wrap around, clothe.”  

517            The interrogative adjective “quae,” introducing an indirect question and agreeing with “fortuna,” is nominative singular feminine of qui, quae, quod.   “fortuna” is nominative singular of fortuna, fortunae, f. (1st).  “viris” is dative plural of vir, viri, m. (2nd); dative of the possessor.  “classem,” direct object of “linquant,” is accusative singular of classis, classis, f. (3rd), “fleet.”  The interrogative adjective “quo,” introducing a second indirect question, is ablative singular of qui, quae, quod.  “litore,” agreeing with “quo,” is ablative singular of litus, litoris,n. (3rd), “shore.”  Ablative of place where.  “linquant,” agreeing with its implied subject “the Trojans (of Aeneas’ scattered fleet),” is third person plural present subjunctive active of linquo, linquere, liqui, “to leave”; subjunctive in indirect question.   

518                  The interrogative adjective “quid,” introducing a third indirect question, is accusative singular neuter of quis, quae, quod.  “veniant” is third person plural present subjunctive active of venio, venire, veni, ventum; subjunctive in indirect question.  The adjective “cunctis,” agreeing with “navibus,” is ablative plural feminine of cunctus, cuncta, cunctum, “all.”   The causal conjunction “nam”= “for, because, since.”  “lecti” is nominative masculine plural of the perfect passive participle of lego, legere, legi, lectum, “to choose”; “lecti” is here used substantively (i.e., “chosen men.”)  “navibus” is ablative plural of navis, navis, f. (3rd), “ship”; ablative of place from which.  “ibant,” agreeing with its subject “lecti,” is third person plural imperfect indicative active of eo, ire, ii, itum, “to go.” 

519                  “orantes,”  agreeing with “lecti” in the previous line, is present participle of oro, orare, oravi, oratum, “to pray.”  “veniam” is accusative singular of venia, veniae, f. (1st), “favor, pardon.”  The conjunction “et” links “ibant” and “petebant.”  “templum,” direct object of “petebant,” is accusative singular of templum, templi, n. (2nd), “temple.”   “clamore” is ablative singular of clamor, clamoris, m. (3rd), “shout, clamor.”  Ablative of manner.  “petebant,” agreeing with its subject “lecti” in the previous line, is third person plural imperfect indicative active of peto, petere, petivi, petitum, “to ask, petition.”